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Classification and working methods and characteristics of die casting machines


As everyone in the foundry industry knows, a die-casting machine is a series of industrial casting machinery that hydraulically injects molten metal into a mold under pressure to cool and form, and then obtain solid metal castings after the mold is opened.

Classification and working method of die casting machine:

There are many classification methods for die-casting machines. According to the scope of use, they are divided into general die-casting machines and special-purpose die-casting machines; according to the clamping force, they are divided into small machines (≤4 000 kN), medium machines (4 000 kN~10 000 kN) and large machines. (≥10 000 kN); Usually, it is mainly classified according to the machine structure and the location of the injection chamber (hereinafter referred to as the pressure chamber) and its working conditions.

Die casting machines are divided into two categories: hot press chamber die casting machines and cold press chamber die casting machines. The cold press chamber die casting machine is divided into horizontal and vertical two types according to the structure and layout of the press chamber. The clamping mechanism of the hot press chamber die casting machine and the cold press chamber die casting machine is the same, and the difference lies in the injection and pouring mechanisms. The pressure chamber of the hot pressure chamber die-casting machine and the furnace are tightly connected as a whole, while the pressure chamber of the cold pressure chamber die-casting machine and the furnace are separated.

There are the following basic categories:

Hot chamber die casting machine

Cold Chamber Die Casting Machine

Conventional hot chamber die casting machine

Horizontal hot chamber die casting machine

Vertical cold chamber die casting machine

Horizontal cold chamber die casting machine

Full vertical cold chamber die casting machine

Features of die casting machine:

Features of hot chamber die casting machine

In current production, most of the conventional hot chamber die casting machines are used. The market supply is dominated by machines with a clamping force of less than 4000 kN. Most of them have a clamping force of less than 1600 kN, and a few have a clamping force of more than 4000 kN. Its characteristics are as follows:

(1) Die-casting of low-melting-point alloys is usually the main method, and zinc alloys are the most typical ones;

(2) It is appropriate to produce small die-casting parts, while hot-chamber die-casting is not suitable for medium and large-scale die-casting parts;

Classification and working methods and characteristics of die casting machines

(3) The molten metal filled into the mold cavity always flows in the closed channel, and the oxidized inclusions are not easily involved, which is more beneficial to the quality of the die casting;

(4) The automation of die-casting process is easy to realize;

(5) Since no pouring procedure is required, the production efficiency is higher under normal operation;

(6) The injection pressure is slightly lower, and there is no pressurization stage in the injection process, but it has little effect on small and thin-walled parts;

(7) The life of hot work parts such as injection punches, pouring pots, nozzles, etc. is difficult to grasp and control, and it takes time to replace after failure;

(8) When replacing or repairing the furnace, it is necessary to disassemble and assemble hot work parts, which increases the auxiliary time;

(9) For the hot chamber die casting of high melting point alloy, magnesium alloy is still more suitable at present, and the hot chamber die casting machine used for magnesium alloy also has the above-mentioned characteristics.

Features of vertical cold chamber die casting machine

(1) Suitable for die-casting of zinc, aluminum, magnesium, copper and other alloys;

(2) In the production site, the consumption is small, and small computers are the majority;

(3) The pressure chamber is placed vertically. After the molten metal is poured into the pressure chamber, the gas is on the molten metal, and there is less entrapment gas during the injection process;

(4) The injection pressure undergoes many turns, which affects the pressure transmission, especially in the pressurization stage, because the orifice at the nozzle inlet is small, the pressure transmission is not sufficient;

(5) Convenient to open the center gate;

(6) The length of the machine occupies a small area, but the height of the machine is relatively high;

(7) When molten metal enters the lower punch, it is inconvenient to troubleshoot the fault;

(8) There are procedures for cutting off the remaining material cake and lifting the material cake during the production operation, which reduces the production efficiency;

(9) When adopting automatic operation, add the procedure of removing the remaining material cake from the top surface of the lower punch.

Features of horizontal cold chamber die casting machine

(1) Suitable for die-casting of various non-ferrous alloys and ferrous metals (currently not common);

(2) The size and model of the machine are relatively complete;

(3) The production operation is small and simple, the production efficiency is high, and it is easy to realize automation;

(4) The injection position of the machine is easier to adjust and adapt to the opening of the eccentric gate. The center gate can also be used. At this time, corresponding measures must be taken for the mold structure;

(5) The technical content of the injection system is relatively high;

(6) The classification and segmentation of the injection process are obvious and easy to realize, which can meet the various requirements of the die-casting process to a large extent to adapt to the production of various types and requirements of die-casting parts;

(7) The pressure transfer during the injection process has less transition;

(8) The contact area above the horizontal liquid level of the molten metal in the pressure chamber is large, and air and oxidized inclusions are easily involved during injection; for high-demand or special-required die-casting parts, it can still be satisfied by taking corresponding measures the result of.

Features of full vertical cold chamber die casting machine

(1) Widely used in die casting of motor rotors, mostly small and medium-sized machines;

(2) This type of die-casting machine has a smaller footprint than other die-casting machines of the same tonnage, but the height is higher;

(3) When the molten metal enters the mold cavity, there is less transition, short process, and low pressure loss;

(4) When pouring molten metal, it needs to go over the parting surface of the mold, and it should be ensured that the droplets will not drip on the parting surface of the mold;

(5) The injection mechanism is below, so it is inconvenient to replace the pressure chamber and maintain.

Link to this article: Classification and working methods and characteristics of die casting machines

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