Detailed machining equipment and process knowledge
Detailed machining equipment and process knowledge
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1. Ordinary lathe: The lathe is mainly used for machining shafts, discs, sleeves and other workpieces with a rotating surface. It is the most widely used type of machine tool in mechanical manufacturing. (can achieve an accuracy of 0.01mm)
2. Ordinary milling machine: It can process planes, grooves, and can also process various curved surfaces, gears, etc., and can also process more complicated profiles. (can achieve accuracy of 0.05mm)
3. Grinding machine: A grinding machine is a machine tool that grinds the surface of a workpiece. Most of the grinding machines are ground using high-speed rotating grinding wheels. A few are processed with other abrasive tools such as oilstone, abrasive belts and free abrasives, such as superfinishing machines, belt grinders, grinders and polishers. (Can achieve a precision of 0.005mm, small parts can achieve 0.002mm)
4. Fitter: The work of the pliers mainly includes boring, sawing, scribing, drilling, reaming, tapping and threading, scraping, grinding, correction, bending and riveting.
5. CNC lathe: mainly processing batch products, high-precision parts and so on. (can achieve an accuracy of 0.01mm)
6. CNC Milling Machine: Mainly processing batch products, high precision parts, complex parts, large workpieces, etc. (can achieve an accuracy of 0.01mm)
7. Wire cutting: The electrode used for slow wire is brass wire, and the middle wire is molybdenum wire. The slow wire processing has high precision and good surface finish. Processing some fine holes, fine grooves, etc. (The slow wire can achieve an accuracy of 0.003mm, and the middle wire can achieve an accuracy of 0.02mm)
8. Spark machine: EDM can process materials that are difficult to cut by ordinary cutting methods and workpieces with complex shapes (such as groove corners, small holes, deformed holes, and carbide machining). No cutting force during machining, no Defects such as burrs and knife marks are produced. Not affected by the hardness of the material, not affected by heat treatment conditions. (can achieve accuracy of 0.005mm)
The machining process specification is one of the technical documents that stipulate the machining course and operation method of the parts. It is based on the specific production conditions, and the more reasonable process and operation method are written into the process documents according to the prescribed form. Guide production.The machining course of the parts is a combination of many processes, each of which can be divided into several installations, stations, steps and passes.What processes need to be included in a process are determined by the structural complexity of the part being machined, the machining accuracy requirements, and the type of production. Different production quantities have different processing techniques.
1) Hole milling with an accuracy of less than 0.05 can not be done, CNC machining is required; if it is a through hole, it can also be cut by wire.
2) The fine hole (through hole) after quenching needs wire cutting processing; the blind hole needs rough machining before quenching and finishing after quenching. The non-fine pores can be placed before quenching (retaining the quenching margin on one side 0.2).
3) The groove below 2MM in width requires wire cutting, and the depth of 3-4MM groove is deep and wire cutting is required.
4) The minimum allowance for roughing of quenched parts is 0.4, and the remaining allowance for non-quenched parts is 0.2.
5) The thickness of the coating is generally 0.005-0.008, and the size before plating should be measured.
Time quota is the time required to complete a process, which is an indicator of labor productivity. According to the time quota, the production operation plan can be arranged, the cost accounting can be carried out, the quantity of equipment and staffing can be determined, and the production area can be planned. Therefore, time quota is an important part of the process specification.Determining the time quota should be based on the production and technical conditions of the enterprise, so that most workers can achieve it through hard work, some advanced workers can exceed, and a few workers can reach or approach the average advanced level through hard work.As the technical conditions of the production of the enterprise continue to improve, the time limit is revised to maintain the average level of the quota.Time quotas are usually combined by craftsmen and workers, and are directly estimated by summarizing past experience and referring to relevant technical data. Or it can be calculated by comparing and analyzing the workpiece or the time quota of the same product, or by measuring and analyzing the actual operation time.
Process Hours = Preparation Hours + Basic Time
The preparation time is the time it takes for the worker to be familiar with the process documentation, to receive the blank, to install the fixture, to adjust the machine, to disassemble the fixture, and so on. Calculation method: Estimate based on experience.The basic time is the time it takes to cut the metal.